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List of best 100 languages by total number of speakers From Wikipedia. English is first by around 1200 to 2400 million speakers.
This is an approximate list of languages by the total number of speakers. It lists 34 languages having more than 45 million speakers.
List of best 100 languages by number of native speakers From Wikipedia. English is third by around 400 million speakers.
List of 100 EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the average level of English language skills.
List of best 70 Amazing Advantages and Benefits of Learning Language by, universeofmemory.com
What’s the Easiest Language to Learn? Possibly the most commonly asked question about language learning is “What is the easiest language to learn?” I answer that question in general, and then with regard to native English speakers. The short answer: whatever language is most similar to your native language. But of course there`s more to it than that. https://langfocus.com/innovative-lang….
The 10 Most Widely Spoken Languages in the World by Langfocus This video is about the ten most widely spoken languages in the world, measured in two ways: by the number of native speakers, and by the total number of speakers (including second language speakers)
World language From Wikipedia https://wiki2.org/en/World_language
A world language is one that is spoken internationally and learned and spoken by numerous people as a second language. A world language is characterized not only by the total number of speakers (native and second language speakers) but also by geographical distribution and its use in international organizations and diplomatic relations.
The most widely spoken (and likely the fastest spreading) world language today is English, with over 1.1 billion native and second-language users worldwide. On similar grounds, French is also commonly categorized as a world language. Other possible world languages include Spanish, Arabic, Hindustani language (Hindi–Urdu), Mandarin Chinese, Russian and Portuguese.
Historically, Aramaic, Ancient Greek, Latin, Classical Chinese, Persian, Sanskrit, and Classical Arabic have also functioned as world languages due to their previous standings as lingua francas over large parts of the world. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/World_language
International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to as
General English, Engas (English as associate language), or
Globish. Sometimes, these terms refer simply to the array of varieties of English spoken throughout the world. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/International_English
English as a second or foreign language From Wikipedia, https://wiki2.org/en/English_as_a_second_or_foreign_language
English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. Language education for people learning English may be known as
English as a second language (ESL),
English as a foreign language (EFL),
English as an additional language (EAL), or
English for speakers of other languages (ESOL).
The aspect in which ESL is taught is referred to as Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL), Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) or Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). Technically, TEFL refers to English language teaching in a country where English is not the official language, TESL refers to teaching English to non-native English speakers in a native English speaking country and TESOL covers both. In practice, however, each of these terms tends to be used more generically across the full field. The one you are more likely to hear depends largely on your location – with TEFL more widely used in the UK and TESL or TESOL in the US.
The term “ESL” has been seen by some to indicate that English would be of subordinate importance; for example, where English is used as a lingua franca in a multilingual country. The term can be a misnomer for some students who have learned several languages before learning English. The terms “English language learners” (ELL), and, more recently, “English learners” (EL), have been used instead, and the students’ native languages and cultures are considered important. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/English_as_a_second_or_foreign_language
The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the average level of English language skills amongst those adults who took the EF test.
Below are the latest country scores, proficiency bands, and rankings as published in 2019.
|2019 Rank||Country||2019 Score||2019 Proficiency Band|
|1||Netherlands||70.27||Very High Proficiency|
|2||Sweden||68.74||Very High Proficiency|
|3||Norway||67.93||Very High Proficiency|
|4||Denmark||67.87||Very High Proficiency|
|5||Singapore||66.82||Very High Proficiency|
|6||South Africa||65.38||Very High Proficiency|
|7||Finland||65.34||Very High Proficiency|
|8||Austria||64.11||Very High Proficiency|
|9||Luxembourg||64.03||Very High Proficiency|
|10||Germany||63.77||Very High Proficiency|
|11||Poland||63.76||Very High Proficiency|
|12||Portugal||63.14||Very High Proficiency|
|13||Belgium||63.09||Very High Proficiency|
|14||Croatia||63.07||Very High Proficiency|
|23||Czech Republic||59.30||High Proficiency|
|30||Costa Rica||57.38||Moderate Proficiency|
|33||Hong Kong||55.63||Moderate Proficiency|
|37||South Korea||55.04||Moderate Proficiency|
|40||Mainland China||53.44||Moderate Proficiency|
|44||Dominican Republic||52.58||Moderate Proficiency|
|60||El Salvador||50.09||Low Proficiency|
|70||United Arab Emirates||48.19||Very Low Proficiency|
|71||Bangladesh||48.11||Very Low Proficiency|
|72||Maldives||48.02||Very Low Proficiency|
|73||Venezuela||47.81||Very Low Proficiency|
|74||Thailand||47.61||Very Low Proficiency|
|75||Jordan||47.21||Very Low Proficiency|
|76||Morocco||47.19||Very Low Proficiency|
|77||Egypt||47.11||Very Low Proficiency|
|78||Sri Lanka||47.10||Very Low Proficiency|
|79||Turkey||46.81||Very Low Proficiency|
|80||Qatar||46.79||Very Low Proficiency|
|81||Ecuador||46.57||Very Low Proficiency|
|82||Syria||46.36||Very Low Proficiency|
|83||Cameroon||46.28||Very Low Proficiency|
|84||Kuwait||46.22||Very Low Proficiency|
|85||Azerbaijan||46.13||Very Low Proficiency|
|86||Myanmar||46.00||Very Low Proficiency|
|87||Sudan||45.94||Very Low Proficiency|
|88||Mongolia||45.56||Very Low Proficiency|
|89||Afghanistan||45.36||Very Low Proficiency|
|90||Algeria||45.28||Very Low Proficiency|
|91||Angola||44.54||Very Low Proficiency|
|92||Oman||44.39||Very Low Proficiency|
|93||Kazakhstan||43.83||Very Low Proficiency|
|94||Cambodia||43.78||Very Low Proficiency|
|95||Uzbekistan||43.18||Very Low Proficiency|
|96||Ivory Coast||42.41||Very Low Proficiency|
|97||Iraq||42.39||Very Low Proficiency|
|98||Saudi Arabia||41.60||Very Low Proficiency|
|99||Kyrgyzstan||41.51||Very Low Proficiency|
|100||Libya||40.87||Very Low Proficiency|
List of countries by English-speaking population
The following is a list of English-speaking population by country, including information on both native speakers and second-language speakers. Read More: https://wiki2.org/en/List_of_countries_by_English-speaking_population
How many words do you need to speak a language? From BBC : https://www.bbc.com/news/world-44569277
To work out how many words you need to know to be able to speak a second language we decided to look into how many words we know in our first language, in our case English.
We considered dusting off the dictionary and going from A1 to Zyzzyva, however, there are an estimated 171,146 words currently in use in the English language, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, not to mention 47,156 obsolete words. Typically native speakers know 15,000 to 20,000 word families – or lemmas – in their first language. Word family/lemma is a root word and all its inflections, for example: run, running, ran; blue, bluer, bluest, blueish, etc.
So does someone who can hold a decent conversation in a second language know 15,000 to 20,000 words? Is this a realistic goal for our listener to aim for? Unlikely. Prof Webb found that people who have been studying languages in a traditional setting – say French in Britain or English in Japan – often struggle to learn more than 2,000 to 3,000 words, even after years of study.
In fact, a study in Taiwan showed that after nine years of learning a foreign language half of the students failed to learn the most frequently-used 1,000 words. So which words should we learn? Prof Webb says the most effective way to be able to speak a language quickly is to pick the 800 to 1,000 lemmas which appear most frequently in a language and learn those. If you learn only 800 of the most frequently-used lemmas in English, you’ll be able to understand 75% of the language as it is spoken in normal life.
Eight hundred lemmas will help you speak a language in a day-to-day setting, but to understand dialogue in film or TV you’ll need to know the 3,000 most common lemmas. And if you want to get your head around the written word – so novels, newspapers, excellently-written BBC articles – you need to learn 8,000 to 9,000 lemmas. Read more : https://www.bbc.com/news/world-44569277
How Many Words Does the Average Person Know? From Word Counter https://wordcounter.io/
- Most adult native test-takers have a vocabulary range of about 20,000-35,000 words
- At age one, a child will recognize about 50 words
- At age three, a child will recognize about 1,000 words
- At age five, a child will recognize about 10,000 words
- According to Kim, Shakespeare’s combined written works totaled 25,000 unique words compared to the Wall Street Journal which used less than 20,000 unique words in its newspapers for a decade. (Note: Several other sources cite around over 30,000 words for all of Shakespeare’s collected writings).According to Kottke.org’s statistical estimate, Shakespeare probably had about 35,000 words in his passive vocabulary. With both vocabularies combined, he would have known a total of about 65,000 words!
- According to lexicographer and dictionary expert Susie Dent, “the average active vocabulary of an adult English speaker is around 20,000 words, while his passive vocabulary is around 40,000 words.”
- the first 25 words are used in 33% of every day writing
- the first 100 words are used in 50% of adult and student writing
- the first 1,000 words are used in 89% of every day writing
- Word Counter is an easy to use online tool for counting words, characters, sentences, paragraphs and pages in real time, along with spelling and grammar checking.
- Read more: /wordcounter.io/blog/how-many-words-does-the-average-person-know/
- Active vocabulary: You can remember it quickly. And you can use it without hesitation in your thoughts, when you talk, and when you write as well.
- Passive vocabulary: you recognize and understand the word (more or less) when you happen to hear it or see it. However, you can’t easily remember the word and aren’t comfortable using it in conversation.
- How Many Words Do I Need to Know to Be Fluent in a Foreign Language?
- In general, we can describe levels of fluency in a foreign language with these rough word counts:
- Functional beginner: 250-500 words. After just a week or so of learning, you’ll already have most of the tools to start having basic, everyday conversations. In most of the world’s languages, 500 words will be more than enough to get you through any tourist situations and everyday introductions.
- Conversational: 1,000-3,000 words. With around 1,000 words in most languages, you’ll be able to ask people how they’re doing, tell them about your day and navigate everyday life situations like shopping and public transit.
- Advanced: 4,000-10,000 words. As you grow past the 3,000 word mark or so in most languages, you’re moving beyond the words that make up everyday conversation and into specialized vocabulary for talking about your professional field, news and current events, opinions and more complex, abstract verbal feats. At this point, you should be able to reach C2 level in the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) in most languages.
- Fluent: 10,000+ words. At around 10,000 words in many languages, you’ve reached a near-native level of vocabulary, with the requisite words for talking about nearly any topic in detail. Furthermore, you recognize enough words in every utterance that you usually understand the unfamiliar ones from context.
- Native: 10,000-30,000+ words. Total word counts vary widely between world languages, making it difficult to say how many words native speakers know in general. As we discussed above, estimates of how many words are known by the average native English speaker vary from 10,000 to 65,000+
Tips for strengthening passive vocabulary:
- Watching children’s shows: TV shows for small children speak in a slow, articulate manner with a simple vocabulary and lots of context clues. This week’s episode about colors might not be as exciting as “Game of Thrones,” but it’ll help you expose your brain to the new vocabulary in context, just like children do.
- Reading children’s books in translation: “Green Eggs and Ham” only used fifty words in the whole book. Hunt down some Dr. Seuss or other familiar children’s classics and learn new words easily by reading these, as the vocabulary is simple and you’ll already be familiar with the context.
- Watching Disney or other animated films: Watching a movie you’ve already seen a hundred times (but doing it in your target language) works on the same principle as reading familiar children’s stories. The vocabulary is simple, and you already know the story so well that you’ll understand much of what you hear without ever needing to open a dictionary.
- Learning vocabulary with real-life video with FluentU: FluentU’s online language learning platform uses videos like TV and movie clips to let you expose yourself to real-life language use and suck up some more new words into your passive vocabulary.With FluentU, you learn real languages—the same way that natives speak them. FluentU has a wide variety of videos like movie trailers, funny commercials and web series, as you can see here: Read more : https://www.fluentu.com/blog/how-many-words-do-i-need-to-know/
- Cambridge students Word limits and requirements of your Degree Committee
Thesis word limits are set by Degree Committees. If candidates need to increase their word limits they will need to apply for permission. Read more: University of Cambridge Students Word needs
Wiktionary:Frequency lists from 100 words to 100/000 words in English and 100 other languages
Counting words and lemmas: The following frequency lists count distinct orthographic words, including inflected and some capitalised forms. For example, the verb “to be” is represented by “is”, “are”, “were”, and so on.
TV and movie scripts
Most common words in TV and movie scripts: Here are frequency lists comparable to the Gutenberg ones, but based on 29,213,800 words from TV and movie scripts and transcripts.
Here’s a fuller explanation of how the list was generated and its limitations: Wiktionary:Frequency lists/TV/2006/explanation.
Here are the top hundred words (from TV scripts) in alphabetical order:a · about · all · and · are · as · at · back · be · because · been · but · can · can’t · come · could · did · didn’t · do · don’t · for · from · get · go · going · good · got · had · have · he · her · here · he’s · hey · him · his · how · I · if · I’ll · I’m · in · is · it · it’s · just · know · like · look · me · mean · my · no · not · now · of · oh · OK · okay · on · one · or · out · really · right · say · see · she · so · some · something · tell · that · that’s · the · then · there · they · think · this · time · to · up · want · was · we · well · were · what · when · who · why · will · with · would · yeah · yes · you · your · you’re
Here they are in frequency order:1-1000 · 1001-2000 · 2001-3000 · 3001-4000 · 4001-5000 · 5001-6000 · 6001-7000 · 7001-8000 · 8001-9000 · 9001-10000Top 1,000 words cover 85.5% of all words (24,981,922/29,213,800).Top 10,000 words cover 97.2% of all words (28,398,152/29,213,800).
From the 10,000th to the 40,000th :10001-12000 · 12001-14000 · 14001-16000 · 16001-18000 · 18001-20000 · 20001-22000 · 22001-24000 · 24001-26000 · 26001-28000 · 28001-30000 · 30001-32000 · 32001-34000 · 34001-36000 · 36001-38000 · 38001-4000040001
These wikified terms can be copied to other language wiktionaries; this is what they are intended for. If you do, please add an interwiki link onto the page here.
Frequency lists as of 2006-04-16:
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2006/04/1-10000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2006/04/10001-20000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2006/04/20001-30000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2006/04/30001-40000
Frequency lists as of 2005-10-10:
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2005/10/1-10000
- The list divided by thousand words: 1-1000 ·
1001-2000 · 2001-3000 · 3001-4000 · 4001-5000 · 5001-6000 · 6001-7000 · 7001-8000 · 8001-9000 · 9001-10000
Frequency lists as of 2005-08-16:
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2005/08/1-10000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2005/08/10001-20000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2005/08/20001-30000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2005/08/30001-40000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2005/08/40001-50000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2005/08/50001-60000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2005/08/60001-70000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2005/08/70001-80000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2005/08/80001-90000
- Wiktionary:Frequency lists/PG/2005/08/90001-100000
- Approximately 24,197 files, 1,712,082,956 words, 70,756.0 average words per file, from which were gleaned about 9,053,310 unique “words”.
English language, From Wikipedia
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula on the Baltic Sea. English is most closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, while its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Old Norse (a North Germanic language), as well as Latin and French.
English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a group of West Germanic (Ingvaeonic) dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are collectively called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England; this was a period in which English was influenced by Old French, in particular through its Old Norman dialect. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing of the King James Bible and the start of the Great Vowel Shift.
Modern English has been spreading around the world since the 17th century by the worldwide influence of the British Empire and the United States. Through all types of printed and electronic media of these countries, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law. Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking pattern, with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order, to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly fixed subject–verb–object word order and a complex syntax. Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation.
English is the largest language by number of speakers, and the third most-spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish. It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. There are more people who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers. It is estimated that there are over 2 billion speakers of English. English is the majority native language in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland, and it is widely spoken in some areas of the Caribbean, Africa and South Asia. It is a co-official language of the United Nations, the European Union and many other world and regional international organisations. It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this Indo-European branch. English speakers are called “Anglophones”. Variability among the accents and dialects of English used in different countries and regions—in terms of phonetics and phonology, and sometimes also vocabulary, idioms, grammar, and spelling—does not typically prevent understanding by speakers of other dialects, although mutual unintelligibility can occur at extreme ends of the dialect continuum.
Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/English_language
Foreign language influences in English
From Wikipedia https://wiki2.org/en/Foreign_language_influences_in_English
About 80 percent of the entries in any English dictionary are borrowed.
According to one study, the percentage of modern English words derived from each language group are as follows:
Latin (including words used only in scientific / medical / legal contexts): ~29%
French (Latin): ~29%
A computerized survey of about 80,000 words in the old Shorter Oxford Dictionary (3rd ed.) was published in Ordered Profusion by Thomas Finkenstaedt and Dieter Wolff (1973) that estimated the origin of English words as follows:
- French: 28.3%
- Latin, including modern scientific and technical Latin: 28.24%
- Germanic languages – inherited from Old English, from Proto-Germanic, or a more recent borrowing from a Germanic language such as Old Norse; does not include Germanic words borrowed from a Romance language, i.e., coming from the Germanic element in French, Latin or other Romance languages: 25%
- Greek: 5.32%
- No etymology given: 4.04%
- Derived from proper names: 3.28%
- All other languages: less than 1%
- from Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish; or from other languages (such as Gothic, Frankish or Greek) into Latin and then into English. The influence of Latin in English, therefore, is primarily lexical in nature, being confined mainly to words derived from Latin roots.
See also: List of English words of Hindi origin
Words relating to culture, originating from the colonial era. Many of these words are of Persian origin rather than Hindi because Persian was the official language e.g., pyjamas, bungalow, verandah, jungle, curry, khaki.
Hebrew and Yiddish
Words used in religious contexts, like Sabbath, kosher, hallelujah, amen, and jubilee or words that have become slang like schmuck, shmooze, nosh, oy vey, and schmutz.
See also: List of English words of Arabic origin
Trade items such as borax, coffee, cotton, hashish, henna, mohair, muslin, saffron; Islamic religious terms such as jihad, hadith and sharia; scientific vocabulary borrowed into Latin in the 12th and 13th centuries (alcohol, alkali, algebra, azimuth, cipher, nadir); plants or plant products originating in tropical Asia and introduced to medieval Europe through Arabic intermediation (camphor, jasmine, lacquer, lemon, orange, sugar); Middle Eastern cuisine words (couscous, falafel, hummus, kebab, tahini).
The word consonant is also used to refer to a letter of an alphabet that denotes a consonant sound. The 21 consonant letters in the English alphabet are
1+ B, 2+ C, 3+ D, 4+F, 5+G, 6+H, 7+J, 8+K, 9+L, 10+M,
11+ N, 12+P, 13+Q, 14+R, 15+S, 16+T, 17+V, 18+W, 19+X, 20+Z,
and usually 21+Y.
The 21 consonant letters in the English alphabet are for 21th Century Global English Language of 4 billion plus human.
Lists of English words by country or language of origin
From Wikipedia, https://wiki2.org/en/Lists_of_English_words_by_country_or_language_of_origin
Language Read more: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about human language in general.
A mural in Teotihuacan, Mexico (c. 2nd century) depicting a person emitting a speech scroll from his mouth, symbolizing speech
Cuneiform is the first known form of written language, but spoken language predates writing by at least tens of thousands of years.
Two girls learning American Sign Language
Braille writing, a tactile variant of a writing system
A language is a structured system of communication. Language, in a broader sense, is the method of communication that involves the use of – particularly human – languages.
The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias and Plato in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. Twentieth century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky.
Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000. However, any precise estimate depends on the arbitrary distinction (dichotomy) between languages and dialect. Natural languages are spoken or signed, but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual, or tactile stimuli – for example, in writing, whistling, signing, or braille. This is because human language is modality-independent. Depending on philosophical perspectives regarding the definition of language and meaning, when used as a general concept, “language” may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules. All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate signs to particular meanings. Oral, manual and tactile languages contain a phonological system that governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and utterances.
Read All: https://wiki2.org/en/Language
Language Areas of the brain. The Angular Gyrus is represented in orange, Supramarginal Gyrus is represented in yellow, Broca’s area is represented in blue, Wernicke’s area is represented in green, and the Primary Auditory Cortex is represented in pink.
The human vocal tract.
Spectrogram of American English vowels [i, u, ɑ] showing the formants f1 and f2Play mediaReal time MRI scan of a person speaking in Mandarin Chinese
Human voice From Wikipedia Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Human_voice
The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal tract, such as talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming, shouting, yelling etc. The human voice frequency is specifically a part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords) are the primary sound source. Generally speaking, the mechanism for generating the human voice can be subdivided into three parts; the lungs, the vocal folds within the larynx (voice box), and the articulators. The lungs, the “pump” must produce adequate airflow and air pressure to vibrate vocal folds. The vocal folds (vocal cords) then vibrate to use airflow from the lungs to create audible pulses that form the laryngeal sound source. The muscles of the larynx adjust the length and tension of the vocal folds to ‘fine-tune’ pitch and tone. The articulators (the parts of the vocal tract above the larynx consisting of tongue, palate, cheek, lips, etc.) articulate and filter the sound emanating from the larynx and to some degree can interact with the laryngeal airflow to strengthen or weaken it as a sound source. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Human_voice
Also: The Science of the Voices in your Head – with Charles Fernyhough by The Royal Institution
Q&A – The Science of the Voices in your Head – with Charles Fernyhough by The Royal Institution
Sound From Wikipedia Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Sound
In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
In human physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain. Only acoustic waves that have frequencies lying between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz, the audio frequency range, elicit an auditory percept in humans. In air at atmospheric pressure, these represent sound waves with wavelengths of 17 meters (56 ft) to 1.7 centimetres (0.67 in). Sound waves above 20 kHz are known as ultrasound and are not audible to humans. Sound waves below 20 Hz are known as infrasound. Different animal species have varying hearing ranges. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Sound
Online Learning In Higher Education From Wikipedia Or Https://Wiki2.Org/En/Online_learning_in_higher_education
Online learning involves courses offered by postsecondary institutions that are 100% virtual, excluding massively open online courses (MOOCs). Online learning, or virtual classes offered over the internet, is contrasted with traditional courses taken in a brick-and-mortar school building. It is the newest development in distance education that began in the mid-1990s with the spread of the internet and the World Wide Web. Learner experience is typically asynchronous, but may also incorporate synchronous elements. The vast majority of institutions utilize a Learning Management System for the administration of online courses. As theories of distance education evolve, digital technologies to support learning and pedagogy continue to transform as well.
www.wikipedia.org With more then 6000/000 articles in English in more then 300 Languages.
Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation.
The Simple English Wikipedia is for everyone! That includes children and adults who are learning English. There are 171,000 articles on the Simple English …
WIKI 2. Wikipedia Republished is Wikipedia with much better design, attractively formatted pages with few colors to choose but 100% the same information and it is free. Try and see differences for free. Get Extension
Free ebooks and Free ebooks Readers: For Smartphones, Tablets, Laptops and Desktop Computers
Enroll in 100 free online courses from Coursera now through …
E-Learning, Online-learning site Coursera is offering 100 classes for free from now through December 31, 2020, to support access to online education for the one-third of people around the world who are currently under lockdown to prevent spreading the new coronavirus
Coursera is offering 100 online courses free, many of them taught by Ivy League schools or offered by companies like Google and Amazon, now through December 31.
See more: Yale’s most popular class ever is available free online — and the topic is how to be happier in your daily life
The 100 Most Popular Online Courses of All Time (2020)
The best way to choose a free Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is to choose one that other people have taken and enjoyed.
Class Central has been maintaining a catalog of these MOOCs ever since they rose to popularity back in 2012. According to Class Central’s 2019 annual report on MOOCs, 110M students have taken at least one course and over 900+ universities have launched 13,500 courses.
To help learners decide which course to take, Class Central publishes a number of different rankings based on the tens of thousands of reviews written by Class Central users.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of the most popular websites worldwide according to the first 50 websites listed in the global “Top Sites” lists published by Alexa Internet, as of April 16, 2020, and SimilarWeb, as of July 2019, along with its rating on the corresponding service.
Wikipedia:Multiyear Ranking Of 100 Most Viewed Pages
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Being one of the best indicators of “what the collective world is thinking about,” the list of most viewed Wikipedia pages receives wide attention in unassociated institutions and external popular media sources. University Degli Studi di Milano created an engine of the complete ranking of all Wikipedia articles for 2014–2017. In 2013, an external media source attempted to determine the 10 most popular Wikipedia pages of all time.The same year the BBC news website published an article discussing most searched Wikipedia articles in 2012 in different languages. Other versions of top-lists for shorter periods are regularly published and discussed by external popular media
THE 20 MOST POPULAR LANGUAGE SCHOOls in the World
Which language schools do you think are the most popular in the world? Here is the answer from the Swedish students in 2016.
Top 200 Universities In The World
2020 World University Ranking
2020 Best Colleges for Foreign Languages & Linguistics
www.collegefactual.com › rankings › top-ranked
Find Best Foreign Languages & Linguistics Colleges schools near you: A ranking of … The lowest ranked school in our list is in the top 19% of our overall quality … University of California – Berkeley is a great choice for individuals interested in a … world-class education, Purdue University Global delivers a fully personalized .
42 Best Foreign Language Schools | 2020 Rankings
www.collegeaffordabilityguide.org › subjects › foreign…
However, the actual list expands slightly thanks to related degrees in German Studies, … Students can also choose to study world literature or how language is …
The Best Language-Learning Software for 2020 | PCMag
www.pcmag.com › … › Education › Language Learning
The best free language–learning app is Duolingo, hands down. Duolingo is available as both a web app and mobile app, and it works well whether you’re a total …
Best language-learning apps, software, and online classes for …
2020 – It offers in-depth and comprehensive lessons for people who want to learn fast. Humble Bundle. Duolingo. Babbel. Udemy. Memrise. Coursera. HelloTalk. It’s like Facebook, but for learning a new language. busuu. Great for people with only a few spare moments a day to get learning.
15 Best At-Home Language Learning Programs, Tools 2020 …
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2020 – Language experts tell us the best programs and resources for … has always happened outside the framework of official learning online, but .
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2020 – One of the best ways to get in touch with new places and cultures is to study their native languages, and luckily, there are many ways to learn a ..
TOP 10 Language Learning Apps – with reviews
/Expert and User Reviews with Side-by-Side Comparison. View Guide. View Lessons. Highlights: Language Guide Available, Free Lessons Available.
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The new e-book Globish The World Over, observes how a billion people are in need of a consistent language to do business across the globe, describes how …
Globish From Wikipedia https://wiki2.org/en/Globish_(Nerri%C3%A8re)
Globish is a name for a subset of the English language formalized in 2004 by Jean-Paul Nerrière. It uses a subset of standard English grammar and a list of 1500 English words. Nerrière claims it is “not a language” in and of itself, but rather it is the common ground that non-native English speakers adopt in the context of international business.
10 Best Free Educational Apps for Students | Mindster
- Google Classroom. In an educational institution, students are often required to complete and submit homework and assignments. …
- edX. …
- Khan Academy. …
- Duolingo. …
- Remind. …
- Photomath. …
- SoloLearn. …
Grammar From Wikipedia, https://wiki2.org/en/Grammar
In linguistics, grammar (from Ancient Greek γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases and words in a natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics.
The term “grammar” can also describe the rules which govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers. For example, the term “English grammar” may refer to the whole of English grammar; that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case the term encompasses a great deal of variation. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Grammar
Main article: Grammatical category
Grammar can be described as a system of categories and a set of rules that determine how categories combine to form different aspects of meaning. Languages differ widely in whether they are encoded through the use of categories or lexical units. However, several categories are so common as to be nearly universal. Such universal categories include the encoding of the grammatical relations of participants and predicates by grammatically distinguishing between their relations to a predicate, the encoding of temporal and spatial relations on predicates, and a system of grammatical person governing reference to and distinction between speakers and addressees and those about whom they are speaking.
20 Must-visit Websites to Learn English Grammar Online …
www.fluentu.com › blog › learn-english-grammar-online
One of the best ways to learn English grammar is by hearing it used in real situations. The more English you listen to, the more grammar you learn—without even
The 10 Best Websites to Improve Your English Grammar and …
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English Grammar | British Councillearnenglish.
Practising little and often is the best way to improve your grammar, so come back tomorrow to choose another grammar point to work on. Good luck! Choose a ..
Wall of Love on Montmartre in Paris: “I love you” in 250 languages, by calligraphist Fédéric Baron and artist Claire Kito (2000)
An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Indigenous Canadian languages
The main phases can be conveniently (if a little simplistically) divided into:
- Before English (Prehistory – c. 500AD) (including Indo-European, Spread of Indo-European Languages, Germanic, The Celts, The Romans)
- Old English (c. 500 – c. 1100) (including Invasions of Germanic Tribes, The Coming of Christianity and Literacy, The Anglo-Saxon or Old English Language, The Vikings, Old English after the Vikings)
- Middle English (c. 1100 – c. 1500) (including Norman Conquest, French (Anglo-Norman) Influence, Middle English After the Normans, Resurgence of English, Chaucer and the Birth of English Literature)
- Early Modern English (c. 1500 – c. 1800) (including Great Vowel Shift, The English Renaissance, Printing Press and Standardization, The Bible, Dictionaries and Grammars, Golden Age of English Literature, William Shakespeare, International Trade)
- Late Modern English (c. 1800 – Present) (including The Industrial and Scientific Revolution,Colonialism and the British Empire, The New World, American Dialect, Black English, Britain’s Other Colonies, Language Reform, Later Developments, 20th Century)
- English Today (including Who Speaks English?, English as a Lingua Franca, Reverse Loanwords, Modern English Vocabulary, Modern English Spelling)
What will the English language be like in 100 years?
TWENTY-FIVE REASONS TO STUDY FOREIGN LANGUAGES
- Foreign Language study creates more positive attitudes and less prejudice toward people who are different.
- Analytical skills improve when students study a foreign language.
- Business skills plus foreign language skills make an employee more valuable in the marketplace.
- Dealing with another culture enables people to gain a more profound understanding of their own culture.
- Creativity is increased with the study of foreign languages.
- Graduates often cite foreign language courses as some of the most valuable courses in college because of the communication skills developed in the process.
- International travel is made easier and more pleasant through knowing a foreign language.
- Skills like problem solving, dealing with abstract concepts, are increased when you study a foreign language.
- Foreign language study enhances one’s opportunities in government, business, medicine, law, technology, military, industry, marketing, etc.
- A second language improves your skills and grades in math and English and on the SAT and GRE.
- Four out of five new jobs in the US are created as a result of foreign trade.
- Foreign languages provide a competitive edge in career choices: one is able to communicate in a second language.
- Foreign language study enhances listening skills and memory.
- One participates more effectively and responsibly in a multi-cultural world if one knows another language.
- Your marketable skills in the global economy are improved if you master another language.
- Foreign language study offers a sense of the past: culturally and linguistically.
- The study of a foreign tongue improves the knowledge of one’s own language: English vocabulary skills increase.
- The study of foreign languages teaches and encourages respect for other peoples: it fosters an understanding of the interrelation of language and human nature.
- Foreign languages expand one’s view of the world, liberalize one’s experiences, and make one more flexible and tolerant.
- Foreign languages expand one’s world view and limit the barriers between people: barriers cause distrust and fear.
- Foreign language study leads to an appreciation of cultural diversity.
- As immigration increases we need to prepare for changes in the American society.
- One is at a distinct advantage in the global market if one is as bilingual as possible.
- Foreign languages open the door to art, music, dance, fashion, cuisine, film, philosophy, science…
- Foreign language study is simply part of a very basic liberal education: to “educate” is to lead out, to lead out of confinement and narrowness and darkness.
–Renate Latimer, Associate Professor Emerita of German
Multilingualism From Wikipedia,
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a group of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world’s population. More than half of all Europeans claim to speak at least one language other than their mother tongue; but many read and write in one language. Always useful to traders, multilingualism is advantageous for people wanting to participate in globalization and cultural openness. Owing to the ease of access to information facilitated by the Internet, individuals’ exposure to multiple languages is becoming increasingly possible.
- monolingual, monoglot – 1 language spoken
- bilingual, diglot – 2 languages spoken
- trilingual, triglot – 3 languages spoken
- quadrilingual, tetraglot – 4 languages spoken
- quinquelingual, pentaglot – 5 languages spoken
- sexalingual, hexaglot – 6 languages spoken
- septilingual, heptaglot – 7 languages spoken
- octolingual, octoglot – 8 languages spoken
- novelingual, enneaglot – 9 languages spoken
- decalingual, decaglot – 10 languages spoken
- undecalingual, hendecaglot – 11 languages spoken
- duodecalingual, dodecaglot – 12 languages spoken
People who speak several languages are also called polyglots. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Multilingualism
List of polyglots
From Wikipedia, https://wiki2.org/en/List_of_polyglots
This is a list of notable people who, according to reliable sources, know six or more languages.
Merriam-Webster Dictionary Website https://www.merriam-webster.com/
Get the most trusted, up-to-date definitions from Merriam-Webster. Find word meaning, pronunciation, origin, synonyms, and more.
Merriam-Webster Dictionary at YouTube :https://www.youtube.com/user/MerriamWebsterOnline
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, New Trade Paperback, 2019 Copyright
by Merriam-Webster Paperback$8.49
Merriam-Webster’s Everyday Language Reference Set, Newest Edition
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Merriam-Webster’s Elementary Dictionary, New Edition, 2019
by Merriam-Webster and Inc. $15.99
Merriam-Webster Children’s Dictionary, New Edition: Features 3,000 Photographs and Illustrations
162 Of The Most Majestic Libraries In The World
hough they are losing ground to the e-book and the audiobook, public libraries were once central hubs of human intellectual progress. There’s something about them that still attracts people, however – whether it’s their magnificent historical buildings or the unmistakable smell of old books and dust, scholars and bookworms alike still enjoy perusing their hoards of literary treasures.
Because of their critical importance, libraries were often built to be beautiful and built to last. Combined with the sometimes priceless book collections that they hold, their simultaneously enormous and intimate spaces possess a charm that no other type of building can command.
If you know of any other beautiful libraries that should be celebrated by all the book lovers, then please add them to this list. You can vote for your favorite houses of knowledge as well!
#1 The National Library Of Prague, Prague, Czech Republic
Look, see and read about all at:
ypes of letters
The American manual alphabet, an example of letters in fingerspelling.
Examples of alphabets and their letters
Venn diagram of letters in the Greek, Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. Certain letters appear in two or more of these alphabets, although they may not represent the same sound.
Worldwide there are many alphabets used at present, with Arabic, Cyrillic, and Latin in widest use. The following alphabets, abjads, and individual letters are discussed in related articles. Each represents a different script:
|Example alphabet||Letters in example alphabet|
|Assamese alphabet||অ, আ, ই, ঈ, উ, ঊ, ঋ, এ, ঐ, ও, ঔ, ক, খ, গ, ঘ, ঙ, চ, ছ, জ, ঝ, ঞ, ট, ঠ, ড, ঢ, ণ, ত, থ, দ, ধ, ন, প, ফ, ব, ভ, ম, য, ৰ, ল, ৱ, শ, ষ, স, হ,ক্ষ, ড়, ঢ়, য়, ৎ, ং, ঃ, ঁ|
|Arabic alphabet||(Alphabetical from right to left) ﺍ, ﺏ, ﺕ, ﺙ, ﺝ, ﺡ, ﺥ, ﺩ, ﺫ, ﺭ, ﺯ, ﺱ, ﺵ, ﺹ, ﺽ, ﻁ, ﻅ, ﻉ, ﻍ, ﻑ, ﻕ, ﻙ, ﻝ, ﻡ, ﻥ, هـ, ﻭ, ﻱ|
|Armenian alphabet||Ա, Բ, Գ, Դ, Ե, Զ, Է, Ը, Թ, Ժ, Ի, Լ, Խ, Ծ, Կ, Հ, Ձ, Ղ, Ճ, Մ, Յ, Ն, Շ, Ո, Չ, Պ, Ջ, Ռ, Ս, Վ, Տ, Ր, Ց, Ւ, Փ, Ք, Օ, Ֆ|
|Syriac alphabet||(Alphabetical from right to left) ܐ, ܒ, ܓ, ܕ, ܗ, ܘ, ܙ, ܚ, ܛ, ܝ, ܟܟ, ܠ, ܡܡ, ܢܢ, ܣ, ܥ, ܦ, ܨ, ܩ, ܪ, ܫ, ܬ|
|Cyrillic script||А, Б, В, Г, Д, Е, Ё, Ж, З, И, Й, К, Л, М, Н, О, П, Р, С, Т, У, Ф, Х, Ц, Ч, Ш, Щ, Ъ, Ы, Ь, Э, Ю, Я|
|Georgian script||ა, ბ, გ, დ, ე, ვ, ზ, თ, ი, კ, ლ, მ, ნ, ო, პ, ჟ, რ, ს, ტ, უ, ფ, ქ, ღ, ყ, შ, ჩ, ც, ძ, წ, ჭ, ხ, ჯ, ჰ|
|Greek alphabet||Α, Β, Γ, Δ, Ε, Ζ, Η, Θ, Ι, Κ, Λ, Μ, Ν, Ξ, Ο, Π, Ρ, Σ, Τ, Υ, Φ, Χ, Ψ, Ω|
|Hebrew alphabet||(Alphabetical from right to left) א, ב, ג, ד, ה, ו, ז, ח, ט, י, כ, ל, מ, נ, ס, ע, פ, צ, ק, ר, ש, ת|
|Latin alphabet||A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, &|
|Hangul||ㄱ ㄲ ㄴ ㄷ ㄸ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅃ ㅅ ㅆ ㅇ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ ㅏ ㅐ ㅑ ㅒ ㅓ ㅔ ㅕ ㅖ ㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅛ ㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅠ ㅡ ㅢ ㅣ|
|Burmese||က ခ ဂ ဃ င စ ဆ ဇ ဈ ည ဋ ဌ ဍ ဎ ဏ တ ထ ဒ ဓ န ပ ဖ ဗ ဘ မ ယ ရ လ ဝ သ ဟ ဠ အ|
|Bopomofo||ㄅ ㄆ ㄇ ㄈ ㄉ ㄊ ㄋ ㄌ ㄍ ㄎ ㄏ ㄐ ㄑ ㄒ ㄓ ㄔ ㄕ ㄖ ㄗ ㄘ ㄙ ㄚ ㄛ ㄜ ㄝ ㄞ ㄟ ㄠ ㄡ ㄢ ㄣ ㄤ ㄥ ㄦ ㄧ ㄨ ㄩ ㄭ|
|Ogham||ᚁ ᚂ ᚃ ᚄ ᚅ ᚆ ᚇ ᚈ ᚉ ᚊ ᚋ ᚌ ᚍ ᚎ ᚏ ᚐ ᚑ ᚒ ᚓ ᚔ ᚕ ᚖ ᚗ ᚘ ᚙ ᚚ ᚛ ᚜|
|Ethiopic||ሀ ለ ሐ መ ሠ ረ ሰ ሸ ቀ በ ተ ቸ ኀ ነ ኘ አ ከ ኸ ወ ዐ ዘ ዠ የ ደ ጀ ገ ጠ ጨ ጰ ጸ ፀ ፈ ፐ|
|Tifinagh (Amazigh alphabet)||ⴰ, ⴱ, ⵛ, ⴷ, ⴹ, ⴻ, ⴼ, ⴳ, ⴳⵯ, ⵀ, ⵃ, ⵉ, ⵊ, ⴽ, ⴽⵯ, ⵍ, ⵎ, ⵏ, ⵓ, ⵄ, ⵖ, ⵅ, ⵇ, ⵔ, ⵕ, ⵙ, ⵚ, ⵜ, ⵟ, ⵡ, ⵢ, ⵣ, ⵥ|
The International Phonetic Alphabet is used to represent exact pronunciation, for example, [ʔ], which is named a glottal stop.
Alphabet From Wikipedia, https://wiki2.org/en/Alphabet
An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols or graphemes (called letters) that represent the phonemes of certain spoken languages. Not all writing systems represent language in this way; in a syllabary, each character represents a syllable, for instance, and logographic systems use characters to represent words, morphemes, or other semantic units.
The first fully phonemic script, the Proto-Canaanite script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet, is considered to be the first alphabet, and is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Latin, and possibly Brahmic.
The history of alphabetic writing goes back to the consonantal writing system used for Semitic languages in the Levant in the 2nd millennium BCE. Most or nearly all alphabetic scripts used throughout the world today ultimately go back to this Semitic proto-alphabet
List of animal sounds
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of animal sounds. This list contains words used in the English language to represent the noises and vocalizations of particular animals, especially noises used by animals for communication. The words which are used on the list are in the form of verbs, though many can also be used as nouns or interjections, and many of them are also specifically onomatopoeias (labelled “OP”). This list also contains audio recordings of animal sounds.
Read More: https://wiki2.org/en/List_of_animal_sounds
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behavior of the receivers. Information may be sent intentionally, as in a courtship display, or unintentionally, as in the transfer of scent from predator to prey. Information may be transferred to an “audience” of several receivers. Animal communication is a rapidly growing area of study in disciplines including animal behavior, sociology, neurology and animal cognition. Many aspects of animal behavior, such as symbolic name use, emotional expression, learning and sexual behavior, are being understood in new ways.
When the information from the sender changes the behavior of a receiver, the information is referred to as a “signal”. Signalling theory predicts that for a signal to be maintained in the population, both the sender and receiver should usually receive some benefit from the interaction. Signal production by senders and the perception and subsequent response of receivers are thought to coevolve. Signals often involve multiple mechanisms, e.g. both visual and auditory, and for a signal to be understood the coordinated behaviour of both sender and receiver require careful study.
Read More: https://wiki2.org/en/Animal_communication
1 Hour of Monkey Sounds by Your Questions Answered
Some chimps are angry at mirrors, while others are calm by Xavier HUBERT-BRIERR
1to 2 billion years ago and making sound or vice sounds in relation to sound,
Sabine Metzger Wow! Amazing Heart Gardens Design
100 plus Red Roses
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